history - Turkey heritage
Turkey as a state has a long history. The colonization of Turkey
started in the High Anatolia area, about 50,000 years ago. Later
findings from 7500 b.c were found around Çatalhüyük. The Hitay
kingdom rolled this area between 1900 -1300 b.c. The kingdom's
capital was called Hattusas. Their roll is compatible, more or less,
to those of the Pharaohs and the Babylonians. By 1250 b.c, the war
of Troy, brought an occupation to the city, and it is ruined to the
The next five hundred years (1200 - 700 b.c), brought a massive
immigration of Greeks to the area. Number from kingdom were created
in the area, when some of them, fought against each other. The
Persians (546 b.c) and Alexander the “Great” (334 b.c), invaded the
area, assimilated with the local population.
By the year 130 b.c the Romans occupy the land, and control it from
the city of Ephesus. In 313 A.D, the Byzantine Roman kingdom
receives on itself Christianity as the official religion. 37 years
later, builds Constantine, the city of Constantinople, now days
Istanbul. By the year 1288, the Ottoman empire starts its sprout in
the city Bursa. By the year 1909, the Sultan “Hamid”, a descended
for a long line of Ottoman Sultans, is overthrown from the sit of
In 1914, Turkey joins Germany in a war, a war that was later known
the first world war. By 1919 Mustafa Kemal, leads a group of rebels,
that overthrow the corrupted Ottoman rule, and in 1923, he
establishes the new Turkish republic, that was one of the few
democracies at that time.
Turkey - Mustafa Kemal Atatürk- The
Father of the Turks
Mustafa Kemal, who is also known as Atatürk-
the father of the Turks, exists in two plains. The physical plain,
and the metaphysic. There is Atatürk the Person, and the myth that
Atatürk person, was born in 1881 in the city of Selanik, that was
then an Ottoman city, that nowadays is in Greece. In his childhood,
his father Ali Riza, who was a trees dealer, died. His mother,
Zubeyde, that was a hard working woman, brought up Mustafa and his
sister. Originally he learned in a religious traditional school, but
quickly he moved to a modern school. By 1893 Mustafa joined the
military academy school. It was then, that his mathematics teacher
added to his name the name Kemal (meaning Perfection), as sign of
esteem to his exquisite excellence in school. Since then he was
known as Mustafa Kemal.
By 1905, Mustafa ends the militaristic academy in Istanbul with the
rank of a captain. He was placed in Damascus, where he formed with a
group of friends the “State and Freedom” cell, in order to fight
against the Sultan's rule. They were called “The Young Turks".
Mustafa Kemal's crier and fame flourished along side his successes
throughout the Ottoman empire, including Albania and Tripoli.
By 1915, when the Dardanelles war erupted, colonel Mustafa Kemal
became a hero through his victories, and the fact succeeded in
removing the invaders from the state. By the year 1916, at the age
35 Mustafa Kemal was promoted to a general rank. In the same year,
he freed two of Antalya's districts, in east Antalya. In the
following 2 years, he served in Israel, and he was able to stop the
enemy in Aleppo.
On 19.5.1919 landed Mustafa Kemal the harbor city Samsun, at the
black sea, and began the war of independence. As provocation against
the Sultan, he entered with an army to Antalya, and convened the
congresses of Erzurum and of Sivas. They were the base to a national
effort, to get read of the Sultan's rule, and to unit the country
under his leadership.
On 23.4.1920 Mustafa Kemal was elected to head the new congress, as
president. The fights continued in few fronts, under Mustafa Kemal
lead the army to the victories against rebels, and invading armies.
In the aftermath of his victories in the two battles in Inonu, in
the west of Turkey, the congress gave Mustafa Kemal, the rank of
Marshal, and the command of the army. The Turkish army got its
overwhelming victory, at the end of August 1922. Within several
weeks, the state was released in entirety. A seas fire agreement was
signed and the Ottoman rule ended.
Lausanne agreement was signed with Britain, France, Greece, Italy
and a few other states, in July 1923. In middle of October that
year, Ankara was made the capital of the Turkish new state. In
29.10.1923, the new Turkish republic was declared, and Mustafa Kemal
was elected as the president of the state.
Mustafa Kemal's presidency, brought many changes the Turkish
traditional life. It is thanks to Mustafa Kemal, Turkey is modern.
It is possible to say with certainty, that it was not for Mustafa
Kemal, Turkey would be a third world poor country.
Between the prominent changes he made in the state, is the exchange
of the Turkish traditional alpha - bet (Arab characters), to Latin
characters with German accent. He distributed lands state lands, to
the peasants. Several good things came out of it. The people cared
about the product that the land provided. The people had interest to
cultivate as much food, animals as possible. Thus enough food grown
for the growing population. People could profit money, and to send
their kids to schools, thing that increased the percent alphabets in
the country, and it made the Turkish market competitive around the
world. Mustafa Kemal separated religion from state and forbade men
to grow beard, and to ware turbans. He forbidden women to cover
their faces with a veil. He changed Turkey to the democratic state,
secular, where all have voting right. In 1934, a law past that
turned the state secular. In was then Mustafa Kemal received the
Between one of the important laws was, voting rights for women, in
1923. This was 6 years before women in United States were given that
right (women America received this right only in 1929), like equal
rights in the workplaces.
In 28.10.1938 Atatürk died from a disease he suffered a long from.
Atatürk- The myth
Every where you look at, you Atatürk's pictures and icons. He is
every where in all governmental offices, in all private business and
in each house. His face is on all accuracy, bills and coins. He is
on stamps, drawings, objects of art and more. Actually, Atatürk can
be looked as one of the most influential people in history. Even
today, almost 70 years after Atatürk's death, his spirit still
hovers over the country. Since then, Turkey is a democracy supported
by the army. A word of caution, never show to Turks and
disrespect for Atatürk.
Turkey Culture and tradition
Turkish tradition has a great respect father, mother, family,
friends, and even foreign. Children they do not shout at their
parents, and do not curse. One of the costumes in Turkey is, before
entering home, you remove all shoes and leave them next to the door.
It is possible to go with socks or barefoot. Turkey combines old
with new. As part of the tradition in the country, the custom of
circumcision custom, is practiced, up to the age of 13. The ceremony
takes place with glory and flamboyancy. Turkish modern culture is
built on layers and layers of old culture. All over Turkey it is
possible to see the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine influence and
more. It appears in building, art etc'
Turkey has old and new music, with many styles, beginning with
classic Turkish music, pop, disco, hip hop and more. Quite a few of
the Turkish singers, perform outside of Turkey. For example, Tarkan,
that at least two of his songs “Oy Nama Şekedem” and the kiss song,
are known outside Turkey. All over the country international
concerts take place, singing competition, dances and more. In
contrast to the impression that might have created, the Turks use
cosmetics etc... (Men and Women alike). The cloths are western
style, when at times you will see in Turkey new fashion and
fashionable accessories, even before you see them in your own
Turkey Territory and bounds
Territory of Turkey is 814,578 kilometers, which out of these
790,200 are in Asia and 24,378 kilometers are in Europe.
Terrestrial boundary length of Turkey is 2,573 kilometers and the
sea boundary is 8,333 kilometers. Turkey is adjacent to two European
countries and six Asians. The boundary with Iran is 454 kilometers,
with Iraq is 331 kilometers and with Syria 877. In 1939 the republic
of Hitay joined the state, finalizing the border. From the European
side, the boundary with Greece is 212 kilometers and with Bulgaria
According to data from 2004, Turkey has about 70 million citizens.
This is just dry information. There are several things that it is
worth to know in regard to these numbers. The Turkish population is
the youngest in Europe. Only 8% from the population are in the age
65 or higher. In comparison, the population of Italy, about 57.7
million citizens, with 18.1% approximately over 65.this makes Italy
one of the oldest countries in the world. Over 65% of the population
is in the cities, and the remainder is in villages, or abroad
(mainly Germany). About 80% from the population is Turkish, 17%
Kurds and the 3 remaining percents are Jews and Armenians.
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