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Turkey history - Turkey heritage

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Tags: Turkey history | Atatürk | Ottoman empire | Turkish music


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Turkey History
Turkey as a state has a long history. The colonization of Turkey started in the High Anatolia area, about 50,000 years ago. Later findings from 7500 b.c were found around Çatalhüyük. The Hitay kingdom rolled this area between 1900 -1300 b.c. The kingdom's capital was called Hattusas. Their roll is compatible, more or less, to those of the Pharaohs and the Babylonians. By 1250 b.c, the war of Troy, brought an occupation to the city, and it is ruined to the ground. The next five hundred years (1200 - 700 b.c), brought a massive immigration of Greeks to the area. Number from kingdom were created in the area, when some of them, fought against each other. The Persians (546 b.c) and Alexander the “Great” (334 b.c), invaded the area, assimilated with the local population.

By the year 130 b.c the Romans occupy the land, and control it from the city of Ephesus. In 313 A.D, the Byzantine Roman kingdom receives on itself Christianity as the official religion. 37 years later, builds Constantine, the city of Constantinople, now days Istanbul. By the year 1288, the Ottoman empire starts its sprout in the city Bursa. By the year 1909, the Sultan “Hamid”, a descended for a long line of Ottoman Sultans, is overthrown from the sit of power.

In 1914, Turkey joins Germany in a war, a war that was later known the first world war. By 1919 Mustafa Kemal, leads a group of rebels, that overthrow the corrupted Ottoman rule, and in 1923, he establishes the new Turkish republic, that was one of the few democracies at that time.

Turkey - Mustafa Kemal Atatürk- The Father of the Turks
Mustafa Kemal, who is also known as Atatürk- the father of the Turks, exists in two plains. The physical plain, and the metaphysic. There is Atatürk the Person, and the myth that exists nowadays.

Atatürk person, was born in 1881 in the city of Selanik, that was then an Ottoman city, that nowadays is in Greece. In his childhood, his father Ali Riza, who was a trees dealer, died. His mother, Zubeyde, that was a hard working woman, brought up Mustafa and his sister. Originally he learned in a religious traditional school, but quickly he moved to a modern school. By 1893 Mustafa joined the military academy school. It was then, that his mathematics teacher added to his name the name Kemal (meaning Perfection), as sign of esteem to his exquisite excellence in school. Since then he was known as Mustafa Kemal.

By 1905, Mustafa ends the militaristic academy in Istanbul with the rank of a captain. He was placed in Damascus, where he formed with a group of friends the “State and Freedom” cell, in order to fight against the Sultan's rule. They were called “The Young Turks". Mustafa Kemal's crier and fame flourished along side his successes throughout the Ottoman empire, including Albania and Tripoli.

By 1915, when the Dardanelles war erupted, colonel Mustafa Kemal became a hero through his victories, and the fact succeeded in removing the invaders from the state. By the year 1916, at the age 35 Mustafa Kemal was promoted to a general rank. In the same year, he freed two of Antalya's districts, in east Antalya. In the following 2 years, he served in Israel, and he was able to stop the enemy in Aleppo.

On 19.5.1919 landed Mustafa Kemal the harbor city Samsun, at the black sea, and began the war of independence. As provocation against the Sultan, he entered with an army to Antalya, and convened the congresses of Erzurum and of Sivas. They were the base to a national effort, to get read of the Sultan's rule, and to unit the country under his leadership.

On 23.4.1920 Mustafa Kemal was elected to head the new congress, as president. The fights continued in few fronts, under Mustafa Kemal lead the army to the victories against rebels, and invading armies. In the aftermath of his victories in the two battles in Inonu, in the west of Turkey, the congress gave Mustafa Kemal, the rank of Marshal, and the command of the army. The Turkish army got its overwhelming victory, at the end of August 1922. Within several weeks, the state was released in entirety. A seas fire agreement was signed and the Ottoman rule ended.

Lausanne agreement was signed with Britain, France, Greece, Italy and a few other states, in July 1923. In middle of October that year, Ankara was made the capital of the Turkish new state. In 29.10.1923, the new Turkish republic was declared, and Mustafa Kemal was elected as the president of the state.
Mustafa Kemal's presidency, brought many changes the Turkish traditional life. It is thanks to Mustafa Kemal, Turkey is modern. It is possible to say with certainty, that it was not for Mustafa Kemal, Turkey would be a third world poor country.

Between the prominent changes he made in the state, is the exchange of the Turkish traditional alpha - bet (Arab characters), to Latin characters with German accent. He distributed lands state lands, to the peasants. Several good things came out of it. The people cared about the product that the land provided. The people had interest to cultivate as much food, animals as possible. Thus enough food grown for the growing population. People could profit money, and to send their kids to schools, thing that increased the percent alphabets in the country, and it made the Turkish market competitive around the world. Mustafa Kemal separated religion from state and forbade men to grow beard, and to ware turbans. He forbidden women to cover their faces with a veil. He changed Turkey to the democratic state, secular, where all have voting right. In 1934, a law past that turned the state secular. In was then Mustafa Kemal received the title Atatürk.

Between one of the important laws was, voting rights for women, in 1923. This was 6 years before women in United States were given that right (women America received this right only in 1929), like equal rights in the workplaces.
In 28.10.1938 Atatürk died from a disease he suffered a long from.

Atatürk- The myth
Every where you look at, you Atatürk's pictures and icons. He is every where in all governmental offices, in all private business and in each house. His face is on all accuracy, bills and coins. He is on stamps, drawings, objects of art and more. Actually, Atatürk can be looked as one of the most influential people in history. Even today, almost 70 years after Atatürk's death, his spirit still hovers over the country. Since then, Turkey is a democracy supported by the army. A word of caution, never show to Turks and disrespect for Atatürk.

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Turkey Culture and tradition
Turkish tradition has a great respect father, mother, family, friends, and even foreign. Children they do not shout at their parents, and do not curse. One of the costumes in Turkey is, before entering home, you remove all shoes and leave them next to the door. It is possible to go with socks or barefoot. Turkey combines old with new. As part of the tradition in the country, the custom of circumcision custom, is practiced, up to the age of 13. The ceremony takes place with glory and flamboyancy. Turkish modern culture is built on layers and layers of old culture. All over Turkey it is possible to see the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine influence and more. It appears in building, art etc'

Turkey culture

Turkey has old and new music, with many styles, beginning with classic Turkish music, pop, disco, hip hop and more. Quite a few of the Turkish singers, perform outside of Turkey. For example, Tarkan, that at least two of his songs “Oy Nama Şekedem” and the kiss song, are known outside Turkey. All over the country international concerts take place, singing competition, dances and more. In contrast to the impression that might have created, the Turks use cosmetics etc... (Men and Women alike). The cloths are western style, when at times you will see in Turkey new fashion and fashionable accessories, even before you see them in your own country.

Turkey Territory and bounds
Territory of Turkey is 814,578 kilometers, which out of these 790,200 are in Asia and 24,378 kilometers are in Europe.
Terrestrial boundary length of Turkey is 2,573 kilometers and the sea boundary is 8,333 kilometers. Turkey is adjacent to two European countries and six Asians. The boundary with Iran is 454 kilometers, with Iraq is 331 kilometers and with Syria 877. In 1939 the republic of Hitay joined the state, finalizing the border. From the European side, the boundary with Greece is 212 kilometers and with Bulgaria 269.

Turkey Population
According to data from 2004, Turkey has about 70 million citizens. This is just dry information. There are several things that it is worth to know in regard to these numbers. The Turkish population is the youngest in Europe. Only 8% from the population are in the age 65 or higher. In comparison, the population of Italy, about 57.7 million citizens, with 18.1% approximately over 65.this makes Italy one of the oldest countries in the world. Over 65% of the population is in the cities, and the remainder is in villages, or abroad (mainly Germany). About 80% from the population is Turkish, 17% Kurds and the 3 remaining percents are Jews and Armenians.


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